GLOSSARY

Update: December 4th, 2009

The HighDef Glossary of Terms

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1000/1001

When the NTSC color television system was being developed, the designers wanted to make it compatible with all of the old black and white systems that were already in people’s homes. To do this, they had to make some compromises. The thing that has probably caused the most problems for our industry over the years is that the field rate was changed by 1/1.001 from 60 to 59.94 per second. This was a small enough change that the older TV’s would still receive the new color broadcast and allowed for the new color information to be encoded into the broadcasted signal. This offset gives rise to “niceties” such as drop-frame timecode and audio that also has to run at the right rate. Although having analog origins, it has also been extended into the digital and HD world where 24, 30, and 60 frames/fields per second becomes 23.98, 29.97, and 59.94  to be compatible with existing NTSC formats and workflows.

1080/24P

Refers to an internationally standardized High Definition production format (ITU BT 709) having a digital sampling structure of 1920 (H) x 1080 (V) and operating at 24-frames per second progressively scanned. Often used to loosely describe a system that operates at 23.976P as well.

1080/60i

Refers to a standardized High Definition production format (SMPTE 274M and ITU 709) having a digital sampling structure of 1920 (H) x 1080 (V) and operating in interlaced scan mode at 60 fields per second. Often used to loosely describe a system that operates at 59.94i as well.

1280×720

Refers to a high definition digital sampling structure of 1280 horizontally and 720 vertically. All 1280×720 images are progressively scanned (720P).

16×9

The standardized aspect ratio of HDTV and Widescreen SDTV – having a width of 16 units and a height of 9 units. Also see Aspect Ratio- Picture, 1.78

1.78

The ratio of the horizontal size of a screen to its vertical size as 1.78 units wide to 1.0 units high. This ratio is the most standardized aspect ratio of HDTV and Widescreen SDTV. Also known as 16×9. Also see Aspect Ratio- Picture

1.85

The ratio of the horizontal size of a screen to its vertical size as 1.85 units wide to 1.0 units high. This ratio is the most common screen ratio for motion pictures. Also see Aspect Ratio- Picture

1920×1080

Refers to a digital sampling structure of 1920 horizontally and 1080 vertically. 1920×1080 images can be scanned either interlaced (1080i) or progressively (1080P).

2k

Resolution defined as 2,048 pixels wide by 1,556 high. Also the name of a color enhancement system made by DaVinci Systems (www.davsys.com) that processes Standard Definition, High Definition, and high resolution images. Resolution defined as 2,048 pixels wide by 1,556 high. Also the name of a color enhancement system made by DaVinci Systems (www.davsys.com) that processes Standard Definition, High Definition, and high resolution images.

22:11:11

Defines high definition video signals, where the luminance (Y) is sampled at 74.25 MHz and the color difference samples (R-Y,B-Y) channels are each sampled at 37.125 MHz. Note that it has become commonplace to denote HDTV Y,R-Y,B-Y also as 4:2:2. While technically incorrect, it is popularly used in a great deal of published literature.

22:22:22

Denotes a high definition system where all signals (R,G,B) are sampled at 74.25 MHz. Note that it has become commonplace to denote HDTV RGB also as 4:4:4. While technically incorrect, it is popularly used in a great deal of published literature.

2.35

A highly popular widescreen motion picture film format of 2.35 units wide by 1 unit high. Also see Aspect Ratio- Picture

23.98 or 23.976

Refers to a video image rate of 23.976 (truncated to 23.98) frames per second – which is deliberately offset from 24 frames so that a simple 3:2 process will produce the standard 59.94 fields per second interlaced video. Also see 1000/100124P.

24P

Terminology for 24 full frames per second digital video progressively captured. In most cases it refers to the HD picture format of 1920×1080, though it is also used with 1280×720 images as well. Often used to loosely describe a capture system that operates at 23.976P as well. Also see 1000/1001.

24PsF

Term used to describe a 24 (or in common usage 23.98) frame progressive video that divides the video in segments of even and odd lines for transmission and storage (and often display). Though transmitted similarly as an interlaced signal, if treated as a progressive signal, does not cause the same harmful artifacts that interlace scanning causes. Also see PsF Imaging.

29.97P

Terminology for 29.97 full frames per second digital video progressively captured.

30P

Terminology for 30 full frames per second digital video progressively captured. Often used to loosely describe a capture system that operates at 29.97P.

3:2 Pulldown

The process used to convert 24 frame per second film or 24P video into 59.94i video. The term originates from the mechanical action of the pulldown gate in a telecine which pulled each film frame into the imaging area. Technically the 3:2 pulldown process consists of two parts: the slowing of the frame rate by a factor of 1000/1001 from 24.000 fps to 23.976 fps and the creation of a “3:2″ field cadence. The 3:2 cadence itself is created by taking one frame of the 24 frame source and filling 3 of the 59.94 fields. The next frame of the 24 frame source will only fill 2 of the 59.94 fields, the next frame 3 fields, the next frame 2 fields, etc. This sequence causes 4 of the 24 frame per second acquired material to fit into 5 frames of the destination 59.94i video. The term “pulldown” is now commonly used to describe any combination of a 1000/1001 speed change and/or 3:2 cadence creation. Also see 1000/1001.

4:1:1

This terminology has come into common usage to describe both high definition and standard definition systems where the ratio between luminance and chrominance samples is 4 to 1 (1 set of color difference samples (R-Y,B-Y) for every 4 luminance samples (Y)). In its original application in standard definition video signals, it represents a system where the luminance (Y) is sampled at 13.5 MHz and the R-Y,B-Y channels are each sampled at 3.75 MHz.

4:2:2

Defines standard definition video signals, where the luminance (Y) is sampled at 13.5 MHz and the color difference samples (R-Y,B-Y) channels are each sampled at 6.75 MHz. This terminology has come into common usage to describe both high definition and standard definition systems where the ratio between luminance and chrominance samples is 2 to 1 (i.e. 2 sets of color difference samples (R-Y,B-Y) for every 4 luminance samples (Y)). Also see 22:11:11

4:4:4

Defines standard definition video signals, where all signals (usually R,G,B but also Y, R-Y,B-Y) are sampled at 13.5 MHz. This terminology has come into common usage to describe both high definition and standard definition systems where sampling is done on the RGB components of a video signal. Also see 22:22:22

48PsF

Term often used incorrectly to describe a 24 frame progressive segmented frame video.  In actual terms, 48PsF would describe an image captured progressively at 48 frames per second and transmitted as a segmented frame.  Incorrect usage stems from having each segment of a 24PsF frame arrive at twice the captured rate (48 times a second).  See PsF Imaging.

4k

Resolution defined as 4,096 pixels wide by 3,112 deep.

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5.1

Denotes an audio system that has 5 full range channels (Left, Center, Right, Left-Rear, Right-Rear) and one Low Frequency Effects (LFE) channel.

59.94i

Describes an interlaced video signal where 1/2 of the total lines of the picture are captured and displayed every 1/59.94th of a second. See also Interlaced Imaging, Progressive Imaging and PsF Imaging.

59.94P

Describes a progressive video signal where all lines of the picture are captured and displayed every 1/59.94th of a second. See also Interlaced Imaging, Progressive Imaging and PsF Imaging.

60i

Describes a interlaced video signal where 1/2 of the total lines of the picture are captured and displayed every 1/60th of a second. Often used to loosely describe a capture system that operates at 59.94i. See also Interlaced Imaging, Progressive Imaging and PsF Imaging, 1000/1001.

60P

Describes a progressive video signal where all of the total lines of the picture are captured and displayed every 1/60th of a second. Often used to loosely describe a capture system that operates at 59.94P. See also Interlaced Imaging, Progressive Imaging and PsF Imaging, 1000/1001.

720/60P

Refers to a High Definition production format (SMPTE 296M) having a digital sampling structure of 1280 (H) x 720 (V) and operating at 60-frames per second progressively scanned. Often used to loosely describe a capture system that operates at 59.94P as well.

8:8:8

Defines standard definition video signals, where all signals (usually R,G,B but also Y, R-Y,B-Y) are sampled at 27 MHz. Also the name of a color enhancement system made by DaVinci Systems (www.davsys.com) that processes standard definition video.

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A/D, ADC

Analog to Digital Conversion.

AAF

The Advanced Authoring Format – Designed as the next generation EDL, AAF is an industry initiative to create a file interchange standard for the easy sharing of media data and metadata among digital production tools and content creation applications, regardless of platform. It includes EBU/SMPTE metadata and management of pluggable effects and codecs. It allows open connections between equipment where not only video and audio are transferred but also metadata including information on how the content is composed, where it came from, etc. It can fulfil the role of an all-embracing EDL or offer the basis for a media archive that any AAF-enabled system can use.

Acquisition

The gathering of data, whether it be photographic, audio, or for some other purpose.

AES

Audio Engineering Society, a worldwide organization. http://www.aes.org/. Also see AES/EBU.

AES/EBU

Colloquial for the two-channel digital audio interface, defined by AES and EBU. Self-clocking transmission of 2 channels with an audio word length of up to 24 bits at a variety of sampling frequencies.

Afterburner

Usually refers to the HD9150 series of products by Evertz (www.evertz.com). The HD9150 “Afterburner” series downconverts HDTV input video to digital and analog standard definition video with and without burnt in timecode/data windows.

Aliasing

Defects or distortion in a television picture due to sampling limitations. Defects are commonly seen as jagged edges on diagonal lines and twinkling or brightening (beating) in picture detail.

Analog

Describes a continuously variable signal of some sort. Commonly used to describe equipment or methods that do not involve the electronic digitization of a signal into data. Examples are can be found in Audio Recording (Vinyl Records, Cassette tapes), Video Recording (BetacamSP, VHS), and Broadcasting (AM, FM, Conventional TV).

Anamorphic

A term used to denote a difference in magnification along mutually perpendicular meridians. Anamorphic systems are basically image-distorting systems. A wide formatted image will be compressed horizontally creating a “squished” looking picture to fit into a narrow medium (film or video). For proper viewing, the image must be expanded back to its original wide format.

Anti-Aliasing

The smoothing and removing of aliasing effects by filtering and other techniques. Edges on character generators and DVEs contain anti-aliasing facilities.

Arri D-20

Next Generation cinematography camera project by Arri (www.arri.com) that is promising high resolution digital motion picture capture using traditional 35mm lenses.

ASC

American Society of Cinematographers http://www.theasc.com

Aspect Ratio (Picture)

The ratio of screen width to screen height. Can be expressed as Width by Height (Example: 16×9, 4×3) or as calculated ratio (1.33:1, 1.78:1)

Some common aspect ratios:

1.33 (4×3) Standard Television or Academy Standard
1.78 (16×9) HDTV
1.85 Academy Flat
2.35 Cinemascope

Aspect Ratio (Pixel)

The ratio of pixel width to pixel height. Standard NTSC (ITU-R 601) digital video has rectangular pixels. Computers and HDTV have square pixels.

ATSC

Acronym for Advanced Television System Committee. Formed to establish technical standards for advanced television systems, including high definition television. (HDTV) http://www.atsc.org

Avid DS Nitris

A nonlinear production system made by Avid (www.avid.com) for conforming and finishing of projects at multiple non-compressed HDTV and SDTV formats. Nitris is part of the Avid DNA (Digital Non-linear Accelerator) line that features custom built hardware acceleration and breakout boxes. Includes a complete range of seamlessly integrated picture and audio editing, compositing, paint, animation, character generation and media management tools. Also available as Avid DS Nitris Editor (without compositing functionality)

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Bandwidth

The amount of information that can be transmitted in a given period of time. For video information, a large amount of bandwidth can be generally associated with better quality of the picture. Digital video in particular requires large amounts of bandwidth. Often, compression techniques are used to reduce the bandwidth needs especially for transmission and storage.
Also refers to the spectrum available to each broadcast station. For digital television conversion, each station is allocated 6 MHz of the broadcast spectrum. In this spectrum, one HDTV signal or up to four multicast standard definition digital signals can be broadcast.

BCD

Binary Coded Decimal. A coding system in which each decimal digit from 0 to 9 is represented by four binary digits (0 or 1).

Bit

Short for Binary Digit. The smallest piece of binary digital data and is represented by either a 1 or a 0. Often the number of bits is used to describe the attributes of a pixel are used in digital video as a representation of signal quality (i.e. an 8 bit signal can have 256 levels from black to white while a 10 bit signal can have 1024 levels). See Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, Terabyte, Petabyte

BOXX

Short for Boxx Technologies, a manufacturer of high end computer systems for the graphics and production environments.http://www.boxxtech.com

Byte

A byte consists of 8 bits or 10 bits. Also see Bit, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, Terabyte, Petabyte.

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Camera Utility

Crew member as designated by Local 600, IATSE. Assists the Video Controller in the setup of the cameras, pulls cables during rehearsals and takes, assists the camera operator during complex pedestal moves (does not focus), setup and maintenance of quad split monitors, cables and all other camera accessories.

Capture Rate

Used to describe the number of times per second that a picture is taken or captured in an imaging system. In a progressive system the capture rate is equal to the frame rate. In an interlaced system, the capture rate is double the frame rate because at each capture interval, only one field (a half resolution image) is acquired. It takes two fields to make a complete frame. It is standard practice to refer to the capture rate of an image as well as how it is captured when describing it instead of the frame rate (i.e. 60i (60 captures, 30 frames per second), 30P (30 captures, 30 frames per second) and 60P (60 captures, 60 frames per second)) Also see Frame Rate, Interlace Imaging, Progressive Imaging.

CCD

Charge Coupled Device. The imaging device used in most modern electronic cameras.

CIE

International Commission on Illumination – abbreviated as CIE from its French title “Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage” – is an organization devoted to international cooperation and exchange of information on all matters relating to the science and art of lighting and color.

CineAlta

Name for a line of products by Sony that are developed for the film market.

CineSpeedCAM

High Speed HD camera from BandPro (www.bandpro.com). Can operate at 1536×1024 pixels at up to 1000fps, 1024×768 pixels at up to 2000fps, or 768×512 pixels upto 4000fps.

Color Correction / Color Enhancement

The step in the post production process where the images are adjusted to both match subtle differences in shots and to create an overall look.

Color Space

Color spaces are mathematical models used to specify, create and visualize color. Different models will represent the same color in different ways. As human’s, we may define a color by its attributes of brightness, hue and colorfulness. A printing press defines a color in terms of the reflectance and absorbance of cyan, magenta, yellow and black inks on the paper. In computer and video production we define a color in terms of the excitations of red, green and blue phosphors on the CRT faceplate or pickup on a camera’s imager. Often in video, values are converted from the RGB color space to either the Y, R-Y, B-Y color space or composite color space for transmission, processing and storage.
Within each of these broader models are more specific color space definitions that specify exact transfer characteristics (Linear, Log, or Gamma), white point, resolution (number of bits), and chromaticity coordinates in relation to standardized CIE values. Some of these models used in video and film production are SMPTE-C, SMPTE-240M, Rec-601-1, Rec-709, and Cineon. To accurately produce a Rec-709 color space signal on a SMPTE-C monitor, a color space conversion must occur. One way that color space conversions can be done is through the use of LUT’s (Look Up Tables) in which the value from one color space can be translated into another. See Gamut, Legal Gamut, Valid Gamut.

Colorist

An individual artist who understands color and can interface between a production’s need for color treatment of images and the equipment necessary to accomplish that treatment. Colorists have traditionally worked with telecine film output, and now also work in tape to tape applications in SD and HD.

Composite Video

A video signal where luminance and chrominance signals have been combined together. This process results in restricted detail especially with color components. Most commonly used to describe NTSC or PAL video where the luminance, chrominance, and horizontal and vertical synchronizing information have been combined into one analog signal.

Component Video

A video signal where luminance and chrominance signals are kept as separate components. This allows signals to retain detail components and eliminates encoding/decoding artifacts commonly found in composite video.

Compositing

The process of layering multiple video clips. Often includes painting, rotoscoping, keying, color correction, matting, etc as tools to create the multi-layered image.

Compression

The process of reducing the bandwidth or data rate in a video or audio signal. Often used with audio and video to reduce storage and transmission costs. Compression techniques common in digital imaging rely on removing both redundant data and data that is deemed less critical or imperceptible to the viewer. This can be done either within a frame (intra-frame compression) or across multiple frames (inter-frame compression). Compression systems are developed to reduce perceptible losses, however most compression systems in use today will exhibit some level of distortion.

Compression Ratio

The difference between the original amount of data and the amount of data after the bandwidth has been reduced through compression, or the degree to which the data set has been reduced numerically. Usually expressed as a ratio such as 5:1 (5 to 1).

Conform

Cutting together recorded material according to a prepared scheme such as a rough cut or EDL. EDLs can be used to directly control conforming in an online edit suite (autoconforming).

CTL

Short for Control Track. A signal recorded on videotape to facilitate proper head positioning for reading the video signal. Often connected to a counter that will increment on every frame of video.

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D-20

See Arri D-20

D-5HD

A High Definition videotape format developed by Panasonic based on the highly successful D-5 platform for standard definition. It uses 1/2″ wide tape stock and records 22:11:11 10 bit HD Video. It uses compression that that reduces the data rate approximately 4:1 to 210Mb/s. The tape format supports 1920×1080 at 23.98P,24P,25P,29.97P, 30P, 50i, 59.94i, and 60i and 1280×720 at 59.94P and 60P. The format became the preferred mastering format for telecine transfers when HD was introduced. D-5HD VTR’s are now also capable of 525 or 625 line standard definition, a move towards creating HD equipment that responds to a more universal approach where equipment can be used in both the HD and SD environments

D/A, DAC

Digital to Analog conversion

DA

Distribution Amplifier. Device that takes a signal in and provides multiple outputs of that signal.

DAT

Digital Audio Tape. An audio cassette tape format that typically records 2 channels of 16-bit 48kHz or 44.1kHz digital audio on a 3.8mm wide magnetic tape.

dB

See Decibel

D-Cinema

Digital Cinema. Digital distribution and projection of cinematic material. Advances in digital video technology, digital video projectors, and new methods of duplication and distribution are coming together to offer a new distribution model that doesn’t involve film prints.

Dalsa Origin

Next generation digital cinematography camera by Dalsa (www.dalsa.com) that uses a unique single sensor design to capture motion picture data at up to 4k (4046×2048) resolution. It features an optical viewfinder and can use existing 35mm PL mount lenses

Decibel (dB)

A unit of measurement expressing ratios using logarithmic scales. Usually used as a measurement of audio volume level.

Depth of Field

Depth of field is a term which refers to the areas of a picture both in front and behind the main focus point which remain “sharp” (in focus). Depth of field is affected by the aperture, subject distance, imager or negative size, and focal length.

DI

See Digital Intermediate

Digital

Describes a signal that is represented by discrete units. Commonly used to describe equipment or methods that involve processing, storage, and distribution of a signal as binary data.

Digital Intermediate (DI)

A Digital Intermediate is the result of the process of shooting Highdef, or shooting on film followed by scanning to film quality data files, editing the project in High Definition, and applying the creative process of color correction and color treatment to the completed master. This Digital Intermediate then becomes the master for video, DVD or for theatrical output by transferring this data master back to film. The big advantage over the conventional method is in the creative process. Once you have scanned your feature to a data master you have the same creative ability and freedom that is available when mastering a television movie or high end television commercial. Creative decisions on effects like speed ramps, freeze frames, dissolves, dips to color, wipes, multi layers and re-use of material are all very simple. Most “optical” effects are part of the automatic conforming process in online editing. Trailers can be cut from actual film footage because the original film now exists in an HD digital format.

Digital Television (DTV)

Refers to transmitting a broadcast signal that consists of digital data. The ATSC has allowed for both standard definition and high definition programs transmitted in a digital form to be considered DTV.

Digital Utility

Crew member as designated by Local 600, IATSE. Additional hire: cable wrangling of cables connected to the camera, under supervision of the DIT, first or second camera assistant or camera utility.

Direct Broadcasting via Satellite (DBS)

Consumers receive programs directly from a satellite source. Typically, a DBS home systems consists of a pizza-sized dish that is locked onto one satellite source, and a “set-top box” that decodes the compressed satellite signal for display on a standard television.

Director’s Friend

A company that manufactures computer-based HDTV interface (www.directorsfriend.com). Often synonymous with one of their products the “df-cineHD” which provides mobile digital cinema capture, color correction, and edit suite capabilities.

DIT

A Digital Imaging Technician. A designation of Local 600, IATSE, the cinematographer’s guild. Advanced coloring (controller duties); setup, operation, troubleshooting and maintenance of digital cameras (oversight of camera utilities), waveform monitors, downconverters (Highdef to other formats), monitors, cables, digital recording devices, terminal equipment, driver software and other related equipment. Complete understanding of digital audio acquisition and timecode process and how they are integrated into digital acquisition format and post production environments. Also responsible for in-camera recording. Supervisory responsibility for technical acceptability of the image.

D-ILAä

Digital Image Light Amplifier. JVC’s proprietary projection display technology which uses a reflective-mode active matrix liquid crystal display to control the light output. D-ILA technology has produced digital projectors with 2k resolutions at high brightness and contrast ratios.

DLPä

Texas Instruments Inc (www.dlp.com) Digital Light Processing technology, the projection and display technology which uses Digital Micromirror Devices (DMD’s) to control the light output. DLP technology enables very compact, high brightness, high-resolution digital projectors.

Dolby AC-3

A digital audio compression technique designed for delivery of discreete multichannel digital surround sound. AC-3 supports from 1 to 6 audio channels (5.1 surround) at various bitrates. Designed as a distribution format, it is not directly editable. Chosen as the audio standard for DTV broadcasting.

Dolby E

A digital audio compression technique designed for the production of discreete multichannel digital surround sound and metadata. Dolby E supports up to 8 channels in any combination including 8 Mono, 4 Stereo, and 5.1 plus stereo. Designed as a production format, it is editable on frame boundaries and maintains quality through multiple decode/encode cycles.

Dolby Pro-Logic

More advanced form of Dolby Surround that not only recovers the surround information from the encoded program material, but also adds a center channel to keep dialogue and center effects firmly positioned. Provides a wider listening/viewing area and provides better channel separation.

Dolby Surround

First generation home theater format that recovers surround information from encoded program material and feeds it to a pair of surround speakers placed up on the side walls adjacent to the listening area. Outputs three channels: left, right, and surround (usually split into 2 rear speakers).

Downconversion

The process of converting high resolution video to lower resolution video. Often done to high definition camera reels so that programs can be offlined on inexpensive standard definition editing systems before being conformed in High Definition. Also done to finished HD programs for delivery to non-HD clients.

DP

Director of Photography

DPX

Digital Moving-Picture Exchange. A file format specified by SMPTE that contains information about an image as well as the image itself.

Drop-Frame

Alteration of timecode to match the framerate of NTSC video to a time of day clock. NTSC video actually runs at 29.97 frames per second (30/1.001). To keep the timecode on an NTSC videotape synchronous with a time of day clock, it needs to make up 1 in 1001 frames. It does this by changing the count by two frames on nine out of every ten minutes. So the frame following 10:35:59:29 would be numbered as 10:36:00:02. 30 frame HD formats are often run at 29.97 to allow conversion and synchronization to NTSC video. These formats support Drop-Frame timecode. Note that there is no drop frame format for native 24-frame video formats. Also see Non-Drop-Frame, Timecode.

DV

Refers to a video tape format primarily designed for the consumer market that records a 4:1:1 standard definition signal with a 5:1 compression ratio for a total bitrate of 25Mb/s. DV cassettes come in 2 sizes Standard and Mini. Audio can be either 48khz 16 bit stereo or 32kHz 12 bit 4 channel.

DVCProHD / DVCProHD-EX

A High Definition videotape format developed by Panasonic. It uses 1/4″ wide tape stock and records 22:11:11 8 bit HD Video. It uses an extension of the DV compression and recording system to reduce the data rate to 100Mb/s. The tape format supports 1920×1080 at 59.94i, and 60i and 1280×720 at 59.94P and 60P. The Panasonic’s Varicam format uses the 1280×720 DVCProHD format to carry variable framerate information. DVCProHD-EX is an extension of the DVCProHD format and is able to record and playback upto 126 minutes of HD video on a single cassette

DVD

Digital Versatile Disk, Disk of the size of a CD, but with a storage capacity of up to 17 Gbyte. The single layer one side DVD stores up to 4.7 Gbyte, more then eight time as much as on a CD. It is an ideal media for video and multi channel audio applications. The term DVD has become synonymous with DVD-Video, which holds MPEG-2 compressed video, multichannel audio, subtitles, menus, and other features onto a DVD disk for playback in industry standard players.

DVHS

A digital tape format developed by JVC based on the VHS tape transport. Most commonly used for HD delivery, it supports MPEG2 encoded video at rates up to 25Mb/s. There are currently 3 different types of DVHS tapes. D-Theater DVHS tapes are recorded with a special copy protection system for wide release of high definition content. Pro-HD DVHS offers the ability to record and playback in a password-protected mode for playback on Pro-HD DVHS equipment, giving content providers the ability to protect their material (this feature is often used for “Digital Dailies”). Pro-HD equipment will also playback D-Theater and Consumer DVHS tapes. Consumer DVHS offers recording and playback of non-copy-protected and off-the-air material and playback of D-Theater titles.

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Edge crop

A technique of showing just the center portions of a wider aspect ratio format. The resulting effect of edge cropping is the loss of the outer edges of the picture.

EDL

Edit Decision List. A list that describes with tape names and timecode numbers how to assemble a program from the original tapes. Includes timecode numbers representing the IN and OUT points, (Beginnings and Ends) of every shot of a complete program.

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Film Scanner

Usually refers to a high resolution Film to Data device that does not operate at “real time” (ie at least 24 frames per second). Also see Telecine.

Film Out

Term describing a “Tape to Film” transfer.

Final Cut Pro HD

Version 4.5 of Apple’s Final Cut Pro (www.apple.com/finalcutpro) software with High Def and Standard Def editing capability.  Final Cut Pro HD features built in support for Panasonic’s DVCProHD codec.  Native DVCProHD coded material (100Mb/s) can be captured via Firewire (from a Firewire enabled deck), and uncompressed HD I/O is achieved using a number of other hardware manufacturers HD capture cards.

Frame Rate

Used to describe the number of times per second that a complete picture is updated in an imaging system. In a progressive system the frame rate equals the capture rate. In an interlaced system, the frame rate is one half of the capture rate. Also see Capture Rate, Interlace Imaging, Progressive Imaging.

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Gamut

A color gamut is the boundary of a color space. Colors outside the gamut of a specific color space are considered “illegal” for that color space even though they may be well within the gamut of a different color space. See Color Space, Legal Gamut, Valid Gamut.

Genesis

see Panavision Genesis

Gigabyte

One Billion Bytes. (~1,000,000,000) bytes. Also see Bit, Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Terabyte, Petabyte

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HD

Short for High Definition.

HDCAM Format

A High Definition videotape format developed by Sony. It uses 1/2″ wide tape stock and records 22:11:11 8 bit HD Video. It uses prefiltering and compression that together reduce the data rate approximately 7:1 to 140Mb/s. The tape format supports 1920×1080 at 23.98P,24P,25P,29.97P, 30P, 50i, 59.94i, and 60i.

HDCAM SR Format

A next generation High Definition videotape format developed by Sony. It uses a 1/2″ wide tape stock and can record either 22:22:22 10bit HD video, 22:11:11 10bit HD Video, or a special double speed mode for 2 channels of 22:11:11 10 bit HD Video. It uses a light compression scheme to reduce the data rate 2.7:1 (for 22:11:11) to approximately 440Mb/s.

HDTV

Short for High Definition Television

HDV

A format which uses DV cassette tapes for recording and playback of high-definition video. The HDV format includes 720p (progressive) and 1080i (interlace) specifications. The HDV format specifies the data recording of MPEG2 inter-frame compressed high-definition signals at either 19Mb/s or 25Mb/s.

High Definition

Usually refers to a video format consisting of either 720 active lines of progressive video or 1080 active lines of either progressive or interlaced video.

High Definition Television (HDTV)

A digital television system in which the quality is much better than that of existing NTSC (or PAL) systems.

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IEEE

Acronym for the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers. Organization responsible for defining standards and specifications.www.ieee.org

IMAX

An entertainment technology company, with particular emphasis on film and digital imaging technologies. IMAX is involved in the design, leasing, marketing, maintenance, and operation of IMAX® theatre systems to film development, production, post-production and distribution of large-format films. Experimentation in HD as an acquisition format for IMAX is ongoing, along with Digital Cinema electronic projection systems. www.imax.com

Interlace Imaging

Imaging technique where all the odd lines of a picture are captured in one moment and the even lines are captured in the next moment. When you put two of these “fields” together, you get a “frame” (all of the lines). Notice however that a frame represents two moments in time. If there was movement between the capturing of these two fields, there will be a blurry look if the image is stopped on a frame. This is not a problem when the program is played back at normal speeds because the eye will merge the images into smooth motion. See Progressive Imaging, PsF Imaging, Frame Rate, Capture Rate

IRE

Acronym for Institute of Radio Engineers. The Institute of Radio Engineers was founded in 1912 – the second organization that would eventually merge to found the IEEE in 1963. IRE units are a linear scale for measuring the relative amplitude of the component of a television signal with a zero reference at the blanking level.

ITVA

Independent Television Association. Now known as MCA-I (Media Communications Association- International www.mca-i.org).

iQ

See Quantel iQ and eQ



kHz

Kilohertz or 1,000 Hertz. A measurement of frequency.

Kinetta

Next generation digital cinematography camera project (www.kinetta.com that is promising a compact HD camera utilizing harddrive cartridge recording, upgradeable sensor section, and a hand-crank attachment.

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Kilobyte

One thousand (~1,000) bytes. Also see Bit, Byte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, Terabyte, Petabyte

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LAN

Local Area Network

Laser Film Recorder

A machine for printing on photographic film. Three lasers scan across the film area to produce the image.

LCRS

Denotes an audio system that has 4 full range channels (Left, Center, Right, Surround). This signal is often encoded in Dolby Pro-Logic for distribution

Legal Gamut

Describes a video signal where all colors are within the gamut of the color space that it currently defined by. See Valid Gamut, Gamut, Color Space.

Letterbox format

A technique for showing a wider aspect ratio format on narrower aspect ratio screen displayed in its original aspect ratio. The resulting effect of letter boxing in a video system is black bars at the top and bottom of the picture.

LTC

Longitudinal Time Code. Pronounced LIT-see. Timecode information that is encoded on a linear track of a videotape. It is primarily used to allow a time code reference to be read when a videotape moving at play speeds or faster. See Timecode, VITC.

LUT

Look Up Table.  Often describing a table that allows the translation from one color space to another.

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MADI

Multichannel Audio Digital Interface, also known as AES-10 standard. Allows interconnection of two devices to transmit up to 56 channels of digital audio (max. word length 24 bits) with a single coaxial cable or via optical link. Standard interface to digital multitrack machines and mixing consoles.

Megabyte

One million bytes. (~1,000,000) bytes. Also see Bit, Byte, Kilobyte, Gigabyte, Terabyte, Petabyte

Memory Stick

A removable digital media card that is used in many applications. Often used to transfer camera setups and scene files between Sony HDW-F900 Camcorders or HDC-F950 Cameras.

Mbps, Mb/s

Megabits per second. A measure of data transfer speed. 1 Mbps represents 1,000,000 bits being transmitted in one second.

MHz

Megahertz or 1,000,000 Hertz. A measurement of frequency.

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Non-Drop-Frame

Timecode counting scheme that always counts 30 frames in a second. Because NTSC video operates at 29.97 frames per second, the counting timecode will not match the time of day. Since there is no drop frame format for native 24P, it is not necessary to specify drop or non-drop frame for these formats. Also see Drop-Frame, Timecode.

NTSC

National Television Systems Committee. Also the name for the 525 line, 30 frame per second color TV standard mainly used in North, Middle and South America and Japan.

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Offline Editing

Editing that is done using less expensive standard definition equipment to produce an Edit Decision List (EDL) which will be used later for assembling a high definition program using more expensive High Definition equipment. Offline editing involves shot selection and the defining of basic transitions such as cuts and dissolves which can be carried by EDLs. AAF promises to be an open standard for transporting a much wider range of decisions, including DVE, colour corrections, as well as other metadata, Offline and Online systems

OMF

Open Media Framework. A file type for post production interchange of digital media. It supports video, audio, graphics, animation and effects as well as edit decision information.

Online Editing

Editing that is done using more expensive high definition equipment to produce a completed high definition master. Using an Edit Decision List (EDL) from an offline edit can save money in online by allowing all the cuts to be assembled in the proper order automatically (conformed) and ready for finishing touches to be added. AAF promises to be an open standard for transporting a much wider range of decisions, including DVE, colour corrections, as well as other metadata, Offline and Online systems for even more time savings.

Origin

See Dalsa Origin

Overcranking

A process based on the film camera technique of recording frames faster than the anticipated playback rate to create “slow-motion”. This process provides unique control of motion images in the camera where motion-blur and other techniques can be incorporated in the process. Panasonic has developed an electronic recording system capable of over/undercrank recording using a process that produces results very much like the film technique. This Panasonic system is known as “VariCam.” Sony has utilized a system where interlaced frames can be interpolated to create progressive frames, creating a look of overcranking.

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PAL

Phase Alternation Line. This is the 625 line, 25frame per second color television system in use today in the United Kingdom and much of Europe.

Pan and Scan

A technique for changing the field of view of a motion picture or down converted HDTV images so that only a portion of the wider image is shown on a narrower standard definition screen. The image is adjusted side to side to adjust framing for the narrower screen.

Panavision Genesis

Next Generation digital cinematography camcorder by Panavision ( www.panavision.com). Features 12.4 Megapixel sensor that is the same size as a 35mm film target allowing for all existing Panavision 35mm lenses. An HDCamSR recorder can be mounted on the top or back of the camera unit for on-board recording.

Petabyte

One quadrillion bytes. (~1,000,000,000,000,000) bytes. Also see Bit, Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, Terabyte

Pixel

A word derived from Picture Elements. This is the smallest unique point of a digital video image. In a Digital Video, a picture is divided up into thousands of pixels, each specified by Luminance, Chrominance, and position information.

Progressive Imaging

All lines (whole frame) are captured at the same instant. Each frame represents a single moment in time. See Interlace ImagingPsF Imaging , Frame Rate, Capture Rate

PsF Imaging

Progressive-Segmented Frame Imaging. All lines (whole frame) are captured at the same instant. Each frame represents a single moment in time. After the frame is captured, it is then separated (Segmented) into two halves. One half is the odd lines and the other is the even lines. (Now this may sound like interlace, but each frame represents only one moment in time, not two). Though transmitted similarly as an interlaced signal, if treated as a progressive signal, does not cause the same harmful artifacts that interlace scanning causes. Often image can be processed with much of the same transmission hardware that was designed for interlace. Processing hardware can also be designed to handle both Interlace and PsF (ie Switchable). See Interlace ImagingProgressive Imaging

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Quantel iQ and eQ

Nonlinear production systems by Quantel (www.quantel.com). They feature the ability to combine multiple framerates and resolutions on the same timeline and then to output a completed project at various framerates and resolutions. Includes a picture and audio editing, compositing, color correction, paint, titling, media management tools, and AAF support.

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RAM

Random Access Memory, a temporary memory into which data is stored.

Resolution

How much information defines an image. There are two types of resolution, spatial and temporal. Spatial defines how many pixels are used to make up a single image. Common spatial resolutions for HD are 1920×1080 and 1280×720. Temporal defines how many images per second are displayed. Common temporal resolutions for HD are 24, 25, 30, 50, and 60 frames per second.

RGB

Short for Red, Green, Blue, the colors used to create all color television and video. Often, the Red, Green and Blue components are only directly present at the image capture stage (in the camera) and on display (on the monitor). At other times they are converted to other forms such as Y, R-Y, B-Y for transportation, storage, and processing. See Y, R-Y, B-Y

ROM

Read Only Memory, a permanent memory from which data can be read. This information can’t be deleted nor altered.

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SECAM

Systeme Electronique Couleur Avec Memoire. This is the 625 line, 25frame per second color television system in use today in France and the Middle East.

Segmented Frame

See PsF Imaging

SMPTE

Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers, Organization responsible for defining standards and specifications for the motion picture and broadcast industry including: SMPTE Time Code, NTSC, HDTV, etc. www.smpte.org

Standard Definition (SD)

Usually refers to an NTSC (or PAL) compatible video format consisting of 480 (576 for PAL) active lines of interlaced video.

Standard Definition Television (SDTV)

A digital television system in which the quality is approximately equivalent to that of existing NTSC (or PAL) systems.

SXRD

(Silicon X-tal Reflective Display) Digital display technology introduced by Sony. If offers high pixel resolutions and contrast ratios. Digital Cinema projectors have been announced with brightness of up to 10,000 lumens and 4k (4096×2160) image resolution

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Tape to Film Transfer

The process of printing high definition or computer graphics footage to film.

Telecine

Usually refers to a Film to Video device that operates at “real time” (ie at least 24 frames per second). Often used to describe the color correction/enhancement step in a production workflow. Also see Film Scanner.

Terabyte

One trillion bytes. (~1,000,000,000,000) bytes. Also see Bit, Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, Petabyte

Timecode (TC)

Standard format for recording time information on videotape. Each frame is given a unique number that is represented in the form of: Hours:Minutes:Seconds:Frames. When used correctly, a specific frame of video can be located on a videotape by using its timecode number. When doing offline editing, proper timecode handling is critical because the timecode is what is used to reference the master tapes in the final assembly process. See LTC, VITC

Title Safe

The area of a screen where it is possible to place a title where there is no chance that it will not be displayed in it’s entirety. In high definition production it is often combined with what downconversion format is used. For example “4×3 title safe” would mean that all titles are positioned such that when the HD program is downconverted edge-cropped that none of the titles would be cut off.

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Undercranking

A process based on the film camera technique of recording frames slower than the anticipated playback rate to create “fast-motion”. This process provides unique control of motion images in the camera where motion-blur and other techniques can be incorporated in the process. Panasonic has developed an electronic recording system capable of over/undercrank recording using a process that produces results very much like the film technique, this Panasonic system is known as “VariCam.” Sony has utilized a system where interlaced frames can be interpolated to create progressive frames, creating a look of undercranking.

Upconversion

The process of converting lower resolution video to higher resolution video.

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Valid Gamut

Describes a video signal where all colors are within the gamut of all the different color spaces that it is expected to be translated into. If a signal contains colors that are within the gamut of its native color space (is legal), but outside the gamut of a color space to which it is being converted to (for example a Y, R-Y, B-Y signal being converted to RGB for display on a monitor), the video may be distorted, folded, clipped or passed depending on how the particular device handles that particular out-of-gamut condition. See Legal Gamut, Gamut, Color Space

VariCam Format

A Panasonic camcorder system that provides electronic over and under-crank recording of high definition video. The system records 720-progressive video at 60-frames per second. Using a system of frame markers in the Timecode User Bits, Varicam can provide variable frame rate recording so that in-camera motion control is possible in an electronic camcorder. Film camera systems have been able to accomplish over/under crank recording for many years, and is a staple of film cinematography.

Venom FlashPack

A dockable solid-state digital recorder for use with the Thompson Viper and LDK-6000mkII Worldcam cameras Each Flashpack can hold up to 10 minutes of 4:4:4 or “Filmstream” data or 18 minutes of 4:2:2 HD Data.

Video Controller

Crew member as designated by Local 600, IATSE. Responsible for color timing including but not limited to; adjusting, balancing, registering and setting timing, matching electronic contrast, brightness, quality and edge definition. Matching of cameras, color consistency (RGB), exposure (iris), density (master black), electronic color balance (chroma, hue and saturation), of each camera and its monitor and totally matching camera inputs to the VCU and checking the waveform monitor and the vectorscope. Generally limited to operating within an already functioning, fully operational system. Supervised by the DIT.

Viper Filmstream

A camera system developed by Thomson that allows for the capture of RGB 22:22:22 10-bit log data directly from the CCD’s. The Viper also features multiple aspect ratios and frame sizes, a mechanical shutter, and multiple frame rate support. The dual link 22:22:22 10-bit log data is transferred over a dual link HD-SDI without any electronic manipulation within the camera. This allows for external recording and full control of the coloring of the raw data at a later time.

VITC

Vertical Interval Timecode. Pronouced VIT-see. Timecode information that is encoded in the vertical blanking of a video signal. It is primarily used to allow a time code reference to be read when a videotape is slow jog/shuttle or pause mode. See Timecode, LTC

WVHS

An analog High Definition tape format developed by JVC based on the VHS tape transport. WVHS records/plays a 1035/1080i analog high definition signal.

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Y, R-Y, B-Y

Terminology to describe the luminance (Y) and color difference signals (R-Y) and (B-Y) of component video. Y is luminance information and the R-Y and B-Y signals together provide the color information. These signals, derived from the original RGB source, are used in most video systems as a bandwidth reduction technique.

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